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Drugs with a negative impact on cognitive function (Part 1): chronic kidney disease as a risk factor


Abstract

People living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) frequently suffer from mild cognitive impairment and/or other neurocognitive disorders. This review in two parts will focus on adverse drug reactions resulting in cognitive impairment as a potentially modifiable risk factor in CKD patients. Many patients with CKD have a substantial burden of comorbidities leading to polypharmacy. A recent study found that patients seen by nephrologists were the most complex to treat because of their high number of comorbidities and medications. Due to polypharmacy, these patients may experience a wide range of adverse drug reactions. Along with CKD progression, the accumulation of uremic toxins may lead to blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and pharmacokinetic alterations, increasing the risk of adverse reactions affecting the central nervous system (CNS). In patients on dialysis, the excretion of drugs that depend on kidney function is severely reduced such that adverse and toxic levels of a drug or its metabolites may be reached at relatively low doses, unless dosing is adjusted. This first review will discuss how CKD represents a risk factor for adverse drug reactions affecting the CNS via (i) BBB disruption associated with CKD and (ii) the impact of reduced kidney function and dialysis itself on drug pharmacokinetics.

Abstract

People living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) frequently suffer from mild cognitive impairment and/or other neurocognitive disorders. This review in two parts will focus on adverse drug reactions resulting in cognitive impairment as a potentially modifiable risk factor in CKD patients. Many patients with CKD have a substantial burden of comorbidities leading to polypharmacy. A recent study found that patients seen by nephrologists were the most complex to treat because of their high number of comorbidities and medications. Due to polypharmacy, these patients may experience a wide range of adverse drug reactions. Along with CKD progression, the accumulation of uremic toxins may lead to blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and pharmacokinetic alterations, increasing the risk of adverse reactions affecting the central nervous system (CNS). In patients on dialysis, the excretion of drugs that depend on kidney function is severely reduced such that adverse and toxic levels of a drug or its metabolites may be reached at relatively low doses, unless dosing is adjusted. This first review will discuss how CKD represents a risk factor for adverse drug reactions affecting the CNS via (i) BBB disruption associated with CKD and (ii) the impact of reduced kidney function and dialysis itself on drug pharmacokinetics.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Nephrology
Health Sciences > Transplantation
Uncontrolled Keywords:Transplantation, Nephrology
Language:English
Date:30 November 2023
Deposited On:20 Feb 2024 09:05
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 03:32
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:2048-8505
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfad241
PubMed ID:38045996
Project Information:
  • : FunderCOST
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)