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Exploring low clozapine C/D ratios, inverted clozapine-norclozapine ratios and undetectable concentrations as measures of non-adherence in clozapine patients


Abstract

Background: Up to 1/2 of outpatients prescribed clozapine may be partially/fully non-adherent, based on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Three indices for measuring partial/full non-adherence are proposed a: 1) clozapine concentration/dose (C/D) ratio which drops to half or more of what is expected in the patient; 2) clozapine/norclozapine ratio that becomes inverted; and 3) clozapine concentration that becomes non-detectable.

Methods: These 3 proposed indices are based on a literature review and 17 cases of possible non-adherence from 3 samples: 1) an inpatient study in a Chinese hospital, 2) an inpatient randomized clinical trial in a United States hospital, and 3) and a Uruguayan outpatient study.

Results: The first index of non-adherence is a clozapine C/D ratio which is less than half the ratio corresponding to the patient's specific ancestry group and sex-smoking subgroup. Knowing the minimum therapeutic dose of the patient based on repeated TDM makes it much easier to establish non-adherence. The second index is inverted clozapine/norclozapine ratios in the absence of alternative explanations. The third index is undetectable concentrations. By using half-lives, the chronology of the 3 indices of non-adherence was modeled in two patients: 1) the clozapine C/D ratio dropped to ≥1/2 of what is expected from the patient (around day 2); 2) the clozapine/norclozapine ratio became inverted (around day 3); and 3) the clozapine concentration became undetectable by the laboratory (around days 9-11).

Conclusion: Prospective studies should further explore these proposed clozapine indices in average patients, poor metabolizers (3 presented) and ultrarapid metabolizers (2 presented).

Abstract

Background: Up to 1/2 of outpatients prescribed clozapine may be partially/fully non-adherent, based on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Three indices for measuring partial/full non-adherence are proposed a: 1) clozapine concentration/dose (C/D) ratio which drops to half or more of what is expected in the patient; 2) clozapine/norclozapine ratio that becomes inverted; and 3) clozapine concentration that becomes non-detectable.

Methods: These 3 proposed indices are based on a literature review and 17 cases of possible non-adherence from 3 samples: 1) an inpatient study in a Chinese hospital, 2) an inpatient randomized clinical trial in a United States hospital, and 3) and a Uruguayan outpatient study.

Results: The first index of non-adherence is a clozapine C/D ratio which is less than half the ratio corresponding to the patient's specific ancestry group and sex-smoking subgroup. Knowing the minimum therapeutic dose of the patient based on repeated TDM makes it much easier to establish non-adherence. The second index is inverted clozapine/norclozapine ratios in the absence of alternative explanations. The third index is undetectable concentrations. By using half-lives, the chronology of the 3 indices of non-adherence was modeled in two patients: 1) the clozapine C/D ratio dropped to ≥1/2 of what is expected from the patient (around day 2); 2) the clozapine/norclozapine ratio became inverted (around day 3); and 3) the clozapine concentration became undetectable by the laboratory (around days 9-11).

Conclusion: Prospective studies should further explore these proposed clozapine indices in average patients, poor metabolizers (3 presented) and ultrarapid metabolizers (2 presented).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Psychiatry and Mental Health
Life Sciences > Biological Psychiatry
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biological Psychiatry; Psychiatry and Mental health; Clozapine/blood; Clozapine/metabolism; Clozapine/therapeutic use; Drug interaction; Medication adherence; Schizophrenia
Language:English
Date:June 2024
Deposited On:15 Feb 2024 09:26
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 03:34
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0920-9964
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2023.07.002
PubMed ID:37487869