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Semi-Supervised Semantic Segmentation of Remote Sensing Images Based on Dual Cross-Entropy Consistency


Cui, Mengtian; Li, Kai; Li, Yulan; Kamuhanda, Dany; Tessone, Claudio (2023). Semi-Supervised Semantic Segmentation of Remote Sensing Images Based on Dual Cross-Entropy Consistency. Entropy, 25(4):681.

Abstract

Semantic segmentation is a growing topic in high-resolution remote sensing image processing. The information in remote sensing images is complex, and the effectiveness of most remote sensing image semantic segmentation methods depends on the number of labels; however, labeling images requires significant time and labor costs. To solve these problems, we propose a semi-supervised semantic segmentation method based on dual cross-entropy consistency and a teacher–student structure. First, we add a channel attention mechanism to the encoding network of the teacher model to reduce the predictive entropy of the pseudo label. Secondly, the two student networks share a common coding network to ensure consistent input information entropy, and a sharpening function is used to reduce the information entropy of unsupervised predictions for both student networks. Finally, we complete the alternate training of the models via two entropy-consistent tasks: (1) semi-supervising student prediction results via pseudo-labels generated from the teacher model, (2) cross-supervision between student models. Experimental results on publicly available datasets indicate that the suggested model can fully understand the hidden information in unlabeled images and reduce the information entropy in prediction, as well as reduce the number of required labeled images with guaranteed accuracy. This allows the new method to outperform the related semi-supervised semantic segmentation algorithm at half the proportion of labeled images.

Abstract

Semantic segmentation is a growing topic in high-resolution remote sensing image processing. The information in remote sensing images is complex, and the effectiveness of most remote sensing image semantic segmentation methods depends on the number of labels; however, labeling images requires significant time and labor costs. To solve these problems, we propose a semi-supervised semantic segmentation method based on dual cross-entropy consistency and a teacher–student structure. First, we add a channel attention mechanism to the encoding network of the teacher model to reduce the predictive entropy of the pseudo label. Secondly, the two student networks share a common coding network to ensure consistent input information entropy, and a sharpening function is used to reduce the information entropy of unsupervised predictions for both student networks. Finally, we complete the alternate training of the models via two entropy-consistent tasks: (1) semi-supervising student prediction results via pseudo-labels generated from the teacher model, (2) cross-supervision between student models. Experimental results on publicly available datasets indicate that the suggested model can fully understand the hidden information in unlabeled images and reduce the information entropy in prediction, as well as reduce the number of required labeled images with guaranteed accuracy. This allows the new method to outperform the related semi-supervised semantic segmentation algorithm at half the proportion of labeled images.

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1 citation in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:03 Faculty of Economics > Department of Informatics
08 Research Priority Programs > Social Networks
Dewey Decimal Classification:000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Information Systems
Physical Sciences > Mathematical Physics
Physical Sciences > Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
Physical Sciences > Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords:cross-entropy consistency, information entropy, semi-supervised, channel attention mechanism, remote sensing image
Scope:Discipline-based scholarship (basic research)
Language:English
Date:19 April 2023
Deposited On:15 Feb 2024 11:22
Last Modified:31 May 2024 01:55
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1099-4300
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/e25040681
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)