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Deciphering factors linked with reduced SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study


Abstract

BACKGROUND

Factors influencing susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 remain to be resolved. Using data of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) on 6,270 people with HIV (PWH) and serologic assessment for SARS-CoV-2 and circulating-human-coronavirus (HCoV) antibodies, we investigated the association of HIV-related and general parameters with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

METHODS

We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 PCR-tests, COVID-19 related hospitalizations, and deaths reported to the SHCS between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs were determined in pre-pandemic (2019) and pandemic (2020) bio-banked plasma and compared to HIV-negative individuals. We applied logistic regression, conditional logistic regression, and Bayesian multivariate regression to identify determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Ab responses to SARS-CoV-2 in PWH.

RESULTS

No HIV-1-related factors were associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. High pre-pandemic HCoV antibodies were associated with a lower risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and with higher SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses upon infection. We observed a robust protective effect of smoking on SARS-CoV-2-infection risk (aOR= 0.46 [0.38,0.56], p=2.6*10-14), which occurred even in previous smokers, and was highest for heavy smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings of two independent protective factors, smoking and HCoV antibodies, both affecting the respiratory environment, underscore the importance of the local immune milieu in regulating susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Factors influencing susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 remain to be resolved. Using data of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) on 6,270 people with HIV (PWH) and serologic assessment for SARS-CoV-2 and circulating-human-coronavirus (HCoV) antibodies, we investigated the association of HIV-related and general parameters with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

METHODS

We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 PCR-tests, COVID-19 related hospitalizations, and deaths reported to the SHCS between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs were determined in pre-pandemic (2019) and pandemic (2020) bio-banked plasma and compared to HIV-negative individuals. We applied logistic regression, conditional logistic regression, and Bayesian multivariate regression to identify determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Ab responses to SARS-CoV-2 in PWH.

RESULTS

No HIV-1-related factors were associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. High pre-pandemic HCoV antibodies were associated with a lower risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and with higher SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses upon infection. We observed a robust protective effect of smoking on SARS-CoV-2-infection risk (aOR= 0.46 [0.38,0.56], p=2.6*10-14), which occurred even in previous smokers, and was highest for heavy smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings of two independent protective factors, smoking and HCoV antibodies, both affecting the respiratory environment, underscore the importance of the local immune milieu in regulating susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Virology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:16 January 2024
Deposited On:27 Feb 2024 09:23
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 01:40
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0022-1899
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiae002
PubMed ID:38227786
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)