Dolichols (Dol) are polyprenol lipids that are essential structural components of eukaryotic membranes. In addition, the phosphorylated derivatives of Dol function as lipid anchors of mono- and oligosaccharide precursors involved in protein glycosylation. The biological importance of Dol phosphates (Dol-P) is illustrated by the severe outcome of human disorders linked to Dol biosynthetic defects, such as Dol-kinase deficiency. For characterization of inherited human diseases and evaluation of therapeutic trials, cultured cells often serve as a sole possible source for experimentation. Limited amounts of cell culture material render the quantitative analysis of Dol a challenging task. Here, we present HPLC- and mass spectrometry-based approaches to analyze and quantitate Dol-P from cultured human cells. The composition of naturally occurring Dol-P and the saturation state of the alpha-isoprene units was identified by negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Furthermore, fluorescently labeled Dol-P were separated by HPLC and quantified by comparison to known amounts of the internal standard polyprenol-P. The effect of pravastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor, on the formation of Dol-P in HeLa cells was investigated. As expected, this treatment led to a decrease of Dol-P down to 35% of normal levels.