Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) represents a broad spectrum of genetic diseases affecting the enamel formation. Suspected changes in the composition and structure of the enamel can hamper the establishment of an adequate adhesive bonding to the substrate, i.e. by influencing the conditioning. It was the purpose of this article to dwell on this problematic issue and to present a case with a hypomaturation type of AI. Using dual etch biopsies, the composition and structure of the affected enamel was studied and findings compared to healthy control teeth, which were extracted for orthodontic reasons. No differences in the calcium and phosphor content of the biopsies were noted. The Ca/P ratio was comparable as well. A sufficient etching pattern after phosphoric acid application was found. Clinical considerations and treatment concepts were discussed, which may also play a significant role when treating cases with other manifestations of enamel or dentin affections.