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Small intestinal volvulus in 47 cows


Braun, Ueli; Gerspach, Christian; Volz, Claudia; Hilbe, Monika; Nuss, Karl (2024). Small intestinal volvulus in 47 cows. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 65(3):267-277.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the findings, treatment, and outcome of small intestinal volvulus (SIV) in 47 cows.
ANIMALS AND PROCEDURE: Retrospective analysis of medical records. Comparison of the findings for 18 surviving and 29 non-surviving cows.
RESULTS: The most common abnormal vital signs were tachycardia (68.0%), tachypnea (59.6%), and decreased rectal temperature (51.1%). Signs of colic occurred in 66.0% of cows in the study. Rumen motility was reduced or absent in 93.6% of cows, and intestinal motility in 76.6%. Clinical signs on ballottement and/or percussion and simultaneous auscultation were positive on the right side in 78.7% of cows. Transrectal examination showed dilated small intestines in 48.9% of cows. The rectum contained little or no feces in 93.6% of cows. The principal laboratory abnormalities were hypocalcemia (74.1%), hypokalemia (73.8%), azotemia (62.8%), hypermagnesemia (61.6%), and hemoconcentration (60.0%). The principal ultrasonographic findings were dilated small intestines (87.1%) and reduced or absent small intestinal motility (85.2%). Forty-one of the 47 cows underwent right flank laparotomy and the SIV was reduced in 21 cows. When comparing the clinical and laboratory findings of 18 surviving and 29 non-surviving cows, the groups differed significantly with respect to severely abnormal general condition (16.7 versus 37.9%), rumen stasis (22.2 versus 79.3%), intestinal atony (16.7 versus 48.3%), serum urea concentration (6.5 versus 9.8 mmol/L), and serum magnesium concentration (0.98 versus 1.30 mmol/L). In summary, 38.3% of the cows were discharged and 61.7% were euthanized before, during, or after surgery.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: An acute course of disease, little or no feces in the rectum, and dilated small intestines were characteristic of SIV in this study population.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the findings, treatment, and outcome of small intestinal volvulus (SIV) in 47 cows.
ANIMALS AND PROCEDURE: Retrospective analysis of medical records. Comparison of the findings for 18 surviving and 29 non-surviving cows.
RESULTS: The most common abnormal vital signs were tachycardia (68.0%), tachypnea (59.6%), and decreased rectal temperature (51.1%). Signs of colic occurred in 66.0% of cows in the study. Rumen motility was reduced or absent in 93.6% of cows, and intestinal motility in 76.6%. Clinical signs on ballottement and/or percussion and simultaneous auscultation were positive on the right side in 78.7% of cows. Transrectal examination showed dilated small intestines in 48.9% of cows. The rectum contained little or no feces in 93.6% of cows. The principal laboratory abnormalities were hypocalcemia (74.1%), hypokalemia (73.8%), azotemia (62.8%), hypermagnesemia (61.6%), and hemoconcentration (60.0%). The principal ultrasonographic findings were dilated small intestines (87.1%) and reduced or absent small intestinal motility (85.2%). Forty-one of the 47 cows underwent right flank laparotomy and the SIV was reduced in 21 cows. When comparing the clinical and laboratory findings of 18 surviving and 29 non-surviving cows, the groups differed significantly with respect to severely abnormal general condition (16.7 versus 37.9%), rumen stasis (22.2 versus 79.3%), intestinal atony (16.7 versus 48.3%), serum urea concentration (6.5 versus 9.8 mmol/L), and serum magnesium concentration (0.98 versus 1.30 mmol/L). In summary, 38.3% of the cows were discharged and 61.7% were euthanized before, during, or after surgery.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: An acute course of disease, little or no feces in the rectum, and dilated small intestines were characteristic of SIV in this study population.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:630 Agriculture
570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 March 2024
Deposited On:14 Mar 2024 09:01
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 03:41
Publisher:Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
ISSN:0008-5286
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
PubMed ID:38434172
  • Content: Accepted Version
  • Language: English