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Cross-protective HCoV immunity reduces symptom development during SARS-CoV-2 infection


Abstract

Knowledge of the interplay between human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is critical to understanding the coexistence of current endemic coronaviruses and to building knowledge potential future zoonotic coronavirus transmissions. This study, which retrospectively analyzed a large cohort of individuals first exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in Switzerland in 2020–2021, revealed several key findings. Pre-existing HCoV immunity, particularly mucosal antibody responses, played a significant role in improving SARS-CoV-2 immune response upon infection and reducing symptoms development. Mucosal neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, although low in magnitude, retained activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants underlining the importance of maintaining local mucosal immunity to SARS-CoV-2. While the cross-protective effect of HCoV immunity was not sufficient to block infection by SARS-CoV-2, the present study revealed a remarkable impact on limiting symptomatic disease. These findings support the feasibility of generating pan-protective coronavirus vaccines by inducing potent mucosal immune responses.

Abstract

Knowledge of the interplay between human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is critical to understanding the coexistence of current endemic coronaviruses and to building knowledge potential future zoonotic coronavirus transmissions. This study, which retrospectively analyzed a large cohort of individuals first exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in Switzerland in 2020–2021, revealed several key findings. Pre-existing HCoV immunity, particularly mucosal antibody responses, played a significant role in improving SARS-CoV-2 immune response upon infection and reducing symptoms development. Mucosal neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, although low in magnitude, retained activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants underlining the importance of maintaining local mucosal immunity to SARS-CoV-2. While the cross-protective effect of HCoV immunity was not sufficient to block infection by SARS-CoV-2, the present study revealed a remarkable impact on limiting symptomatic disease. These findings support the feasibility of generating pan-protective coronavirus vaccines by inducing potent mucosal immune responses.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Virology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Microbiology
Life Sciences > Virology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Virology, Microbiology
Language:English
Date:25 January 2024
Deposited On:27 Mar 2024 12:49
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 03:42
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
ISSN:2150-7511
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.02722-23
PubMed ID:38270455
Project Information:
  • : FunderProMedica
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project TitleGrant to Irene Abela
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID196906
  • : Project TitleA Systematic Assessment of the Drivers of COVID-19 in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: Epidemiology, Immunology, and Genetics
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)