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Activity Diversity and Well-Being in Daily Life: Evidence for Heterogeneity Between Older Adults


Luo, Minxia; Moulder, Robert Glenn; Breitfelder, Laura K; Röcke, Christina (2024). Activity Diversity and Well-Being in Daily Life: Evidence for Heterogeneity Between Older Adults. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 79(6):1-31.

Abstract

Objectives
Although higher activity diversity is associated with higher well-being at the between-person level, it is unknown whether a day with higher activity diversity is related to higher well-being within persons. Within 24 hours per day, there is a limited number of activities on which individuals could spend their time and energy. Personal resources could influence the expenditure of energy and thus the experience with daily activities. This study examined daily associations between activity diversity and well-being and whether age and self-related health moderated the associations.


Method
For seven times per day over two weeks, 129 retired older adults (Mage = 73.9 years, SDage = 5.6) reported their present activity engagement and positive and negative affect. Daily activity diversity was operationalized as the number of different activity types reported per day. Daily positive and negative affect were assessed as the average of a range of high- and low-arousal affective states. Self-rated health was assessed with an item from the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline.


Results
Multilevel models showed that daily activity diversity was unrelated, on average, to daily positive or negative affect, at the between- and within-person levels. Daily activity diversity was associated with lower daily positive affect in participants with lower self-rated health, but the Johnson-Neyman regions of significance was outside of the range of observed data.


Discussion
Divergent patterns were observed in the within-person associations between activity diversity and well-being across participants. Results are discussed in the contexts of time use and well-being in older age.

Abstract

Objectives
Although higher activity diversity is associated with higher well-being at the between-person level, it is unknown whether a day with higher activity diversity is related to higher well-being within persons. Within 24 hours per day, there is a limited number of activities on which individuals could spend their time and energy. Personal resources could influence the expenditure of energy and thus the experience with daily activities. This study examined daily associations between activity diversity and well-being and whether age and self-related health moderated the associations.


Method
For seven times per day over two weeks, 129 retired older adults (Mage = 73.9 years, SDage = 5.6) reported their present activity engagement and positive and negative affect. Daily activity diversity was operationalized as the number of different activity types reported per day. Daily positive and negative affect were assessed as the average of a range of high- and low-arousal affective states. Self-rated health was assessed with an item from the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline.


Results
Multilevel models showed that daily activity diversity was unrelated, on average, to daily positive or negative affect, at the between- and within-person levels. Daily activity diversity was associated with lower daily positive affect in participants with lower self-rated health, but the Johnson-Neyman regions of significance was outside of the range of observed data.


Discussion
Divergent patterns were observed in the within-person associations between activity diversity and well-being across participants. Results are discussed in the contexts of time use and well-being in older age.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Special Collections > Centers of Competence > Healthy Longevity Center
08 Research Priority Programs > Dynamics of Healthy Aging
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Healthy aging; Time use; Health; Positive and negative affect; Ambulatory assessment
Language:English
Date:1 June 2024
Deposited On:17 Apr 2024 07:54
Last Modified:13 May 2024 07:49
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1079-5014
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbae025
PubMed ID:38554041
  • Content: Accepted Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)