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LIKE SEX4 1 Acts as a β-Amylase-Binding Scaffold on Starch Granules during Starch Degradation


Abstract

In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves, starch is synthesized during the day and degraded at night to fuel growth and metabolism. Starch is degraded primarily by β-amylases, liberating maltose, but this activity is preceded by glucan phosphorylation and is accompanied by dephosphorylation. A glucan phosphatase family member, LIKE SEX4 1 (LSF1), binds starch and is required for normal starch degradation, but its exact role is unclear. Here, we show that LSF1 does not dephosphorylate glucans. The recombinant dual specificity phosphatase (DSP) domain of LSF1 had no detectable phosphatase activity. Furthermore, a variant of LSF1 mutated in the catalytic cysteine of the DSP domain complemented the starch-excess phenotype of the lsf1 mutant. By contrast, a variant of LSF1 with mutations in the carbohydrate binding module did not complement lsf1 Thus, glucan binding, but not phosphatase activity, is required for the function of LSF1 in starch degradation. LSF1 interacts with the β-amylases BAM1 and BAM3, and the BAM1-LSF1 complex shows amylolytic but not glucan phosphatase activity. Nighttime maltose levels are reduced in lsf1, and genetic analysis indicated that the starch-excess phenotype of lsf1 is dependent on bam1 and bam3 We propose that LSF1 binds β-amylases at the starch granule surface, thereby promoting starch degradation.

Abstract

In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves, starch is synthesized during the day and degraded at night to fuel growth and metabolism. Starch is degraded primarily by β-amylases, liberating maltose, but this activity is preceded by glucan phosphorylation and is accompanied by dephosphorylation. A glucan phosphatase family member, LIKE SEX4 1 (LSF1), binds starch and is required for normal starch degradation, but its exact role is unclear. Here, we show that LSF1 does not dephosphorylate glucans. The recombinant dual specificity phosphatase (DSP) domain of LSF1 had no detectable phosphatase activity. Furthermore, a variant of LSF1 mutated in the catalytic cysteine of the DSP domain complemented the starch-excess phenotype of the lsf1 mutant. By contrast, a variant of LSF1 with mutations in the carbohydrate binding module did not complement lsf1 Thus, glucan binding, but not phosphatase activity, is required for the function of LSF1 in starch degradation. LSF1 interacts with the β-amylases BAM1 and BAM3, and the BAM1-LSF1 complex shows amylolytic but not glucan phosphatase activity. Nighttime maltose levels are reduced in lsf1, and genetic analysis indicated that the starch-excess phenotype of lsf1 is dependent on bam1 and bam3 We propose that LSF1 binds β-amylases at the starch granule surface, thereby promoting starch degradation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Plant Science
Language:English
Date:1 September 2019
Deposited On:09 May 2024 10:43
Last Modified:10 May 2024 20:00
Publisher:American Society of Plant Biologists
ISSN:1040-4651
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.19.00089
PubMed ID:31266901
Project Information:
  • : FunderRoche Research Foundation
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  • : FunderETH Foundation
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  • : FunderSyngenta
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  • : FunderNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
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  • : FunderKorea Research Foundation,
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  • : FunderZurich-Basel Plant Science Centre Syngenta
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