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Target DNA-dependent activation mechanism of the prokaryotic immune system SPARTA


Finocchio, Giada; Koopal, Balwina; Potocnik, Ana; Heijstek, Clint; Westphal, Adrie H; Jinek, Martin; Swarts, Daan C (2024). Target DNA-dependent activation mechanism of the prokaryotic immune system SPARTA. Nucleic Acids Research, 52(4):2012-2029.

Abstract

In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic innate immune systems, TIR domains function as NADases that degrade the key metabolite NAD+ or generate signaling molecules. Catalytic activation of TIR domains requires oligomerization, but how this is achieved varies in distinct immune systems. In the Short prokaryotic Argonaute (pAgo)/TIR-APAZ (SPARTA) immune system, TIR NADase activity is triggered upon guide RNA-mediated recognition of invading DNA by an unknown mechanism. Here, we describe cryo-EM structures of SPARTA in the inactive monomeric and target DNA-activated tetrameric states. The monomeric SPARTA structure reveals that in the absence of target DNA, a C-terminal tail of TIR-APAZ occupies the nucleic acid binding cleft formed by the pAgo and TIR-APAZ subunits, inhibiting SPARTA activation. In the active tetrameric SPARTA complex, guide RNA-mediated target DNA binding displaces the C-terminal tail and induces conformational changes in pAgo that facilitate SPARTA-SPARTA dimerization. Concurrent release and rotation of one TIR domain allow it to form a composite NADase catalytic site with the other TIR domain within the dimer, and generate a self-complementary interface that mediates cooperative tetramerization. Combined, this study provides critical insights into the structural architecture of SPARTA and the molecular mechanism underlying target DNA-dependent oligomerization and catalytic activation.

Abstract

In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic innate immune systems, TIR domains function as NADases that degrade the key metabolite NAD+ or generate signaling molecules. Catalytic activation of TIR domains requires oligomerization, but how this is achieved varies in distinct immune systems. In the Short prokaryotic Argonaute (pAgo)/TIR-APAZ (SPARTA) immune system, TIR NADase activity is triggered upon guide RNA-mediated recognition of invading DNA by an unknown mechanism. Here, we describe cryo-EM structures of SPARTA in the inactive monomeric and target DNA-activated tetrameric states. The monomeric SPARTA structure reveals that in the absence of target DNA, a C-terminal tail of TIR-APAZ occupies the nucleic acid binding cleft formed by the pAgo and TIR-APAZ subunits, inhibiting SPARTA activation. In the active tetrameric SPARTA complex, guide RNA-mediated target DNA binding displaces the C-terminal tail and induces conformational changes in pAgo that facilitate SPARTA-SPARTA dimerization. Concurrent release and rotation of one TIR domain allow it to form a composite NADase catalytic site with the other TIR domain within the dimer, and generate a self-complementary interface that mediates cooperative tetramerization. Combined, this study provides critical insights into the structural architecture of SPARTA and the molecular mechanism underlying target DNA-dependent oligomerization and catalytic activation.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Biochemistry
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Biochemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Genetics
Language:English
Date:28 February 2024
Deposited On:09 May 2024 10:45
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0305-1048
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkad1248
PubMed ID:38224450
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)