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No Remdesivir Resistance Observed in the Phase 3 Severe and Moderate COVID-19 SIMPLE Trials


Abstract

Remdesivir (RDV) is a broad-spectrum nucleotide analog prodrug approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients with clinical benefit demonstrated in multiple Phase 3 trials. Here we present SARS-CoV-2 resistance analyses from the Phase 3 SIMPLE clinical studies evaluating RDV in hospitalized participants with severe or moderate COVID-19 disease. The severe and moderate studies enrolled participants with radiologic evidence of pneumonia and a room-air oxygen saturation of ≤94% or >94%, respectively. Virology sample collection was optional in the study protocols. Sequencing and related viral load data were obtained retrospectively from participants at a subset of study sites with local sequencing capabilities (10 of 183 sites) at timepoints with detectable viral load. Among participants with both baseline and post-baseline sequencing data treated with RDV, emergent Nsp12 substitutions were observed in 4 of 19 (21%) participants in the severe study and none of the 2 participants in the moderate study. The following 5 substitutions emerged: T76I, A526V, A554V, E665K, and C697F. The substitutions T76I, A526V, A554V, and C697F had an EC50 fold change of ≤1.5 relative to the wildtype reference using a SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic replicon system, indicating no significant change in the susceptibility to RDV. The phenotyping of E665K could not be determined due to a lack of replication. These data reveal no evidence of relevant resistance emergence and further confirm the established efficacy profile of RDV with a high resistance barrier in COVID-19 patients.

Abstract

Remdesivir (RDV) is a broad-spectrum nucleotide analog prodrug approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients with clinical benefit demonstrated in multiple Phase 3 trials. Here we present SARS-CoV-2 resistance analyses from the Phase 3 SIMPLE clinical studies evaluating RDV in hospitalized participants with severe or moderate COVID-19 disease. The severe and moderate studies enrolled participants with radiologic evidence of pneumonia and a room-air oxygen saturation of ≤94% or >94%, respectively. Virology sample collection was optional in the study protocols. Sequencing and related viral load data were obtained retrospectively from participants at a subset of study sites with local sequencing capabilities (10 of 183 sites) at timepoints with detectable viral load. Among participants with both baseline and post-baseline sequencing data treated with RDV, emergent Nsp12 substitutions were observed in 4 of 19 (21%) participants in the severe study and none of the 2 participants in the moderate study. The following 5 substitutions emerged: T76I, A526V, A554V, E665K, and C697F. The substitutions T76I, A526V, A554V, and C697F had an EC50 fold change of ≤1.5 relative to the wildtype reference using a SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic replicon system, indicating no significant change in the susceptibility to RDV. The phenotyping of E665K could not be determined due to a lack of replication. These data reveal no evidence of relevant resistance emergence and further confirm the established efficacy profile of RDV with a high resistance barrier in COVID-19 patients.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Virology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Life Sciences > Virology
Language:English
Date:31 March 2024
Deposited On:22 May 2024 10:37
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1999-4915
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040546
PubMed ID:38675889
Project Information:
  • : FunderGilead Sciences
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)