BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the management of cholecysto- and choledocholithiasis and outcome of -laparoscopic as well as open cholecystectomy (CHE) and common bile duct (CBD) exploration in Bavaria, Germany. A written questionnaire -in-cluding 201 structured items was sent to all 180 hospitals and departments performing gen-eral or abdominal surgery in Bavaria. RESULTS: The response rate was 60 %. A total of 16 615 operations for gallstone disease including 16 051 cholecystectomies and 453 CBD explo-ra-tions with or without cholecystectomy were -reported. 88 % of all cholcystectomies started -laparoscopically, the conversion rate was 5.6 %. The Veres needle (69 %), 4 trocar techniques and electrosurgical hook knife were reported as standard procedures. A retrieval bag was used by 53 % of all surgeons. The overall complication rate for cholecystectomy was 5.46 % including 0.15 % -major bile duct injuries. Relaparoscopy was performed in 0.35 %, relaparotomy in 0.44 % and postoperative treatment by ERC in 1.45 %. The overall hospital mortality rate was 0.13 %. When choledocholithiasis was suspected, a two-stage management ("therapeutic splitting") with preoperative ERC was preferred (99 %). The conversion rate of simultaneous laparoscopic CHE+CBD exploration was 43 %. CONCLUSION: These results allow an estimation of the frequency and overall risks in surgical therapy for gallstones. At present, new techniques like combined laparoscopic and endoscopic proce-dures, microinstruments or N.O.T.E.S do not play a significant role in Germany.