Archocentrus myrnae is a small Central American cichlid that breeds in crevices. This study describes reproductive behavior and associated changes in color patterns in this species. Unlike most other cichlids from that area, female A. myrnae establish territories and actively court males before spawning. During courtship, females exhibit a distinct coloration. Whereas presence of courtship by females and the reversed sexual dimorphism usually is connected to reversal of sex roles in other fishes, females of A. myrnae intensively care for their brood after spawning through the free-swimming stage. Males are less active during brood care. In the context of the high reproductive investment of females, the evolution and maintenance of courtship and ornamentation of females is not yet understood.