OBJECTIVE: Although there is evidence of specific associations between neuronal activity and early cerebral blood flow (CBF), little is known on a logical furtherance of this linkage, namely the association between early measures of cerebral hemodynamics and complex behavior. The present study examined the linkage between hemodynamic modulation in basal cerebral arteries and performance in a non-routine planning task by means of functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). METHODS: The Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) was employed as planning paradigm. The middle and anterior cerebral arteries (MCA/ACA) were bilaterally insonated. Statistical methods comprised uni- and multivariate analyses of variance and multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Taking advantage of the excellent temporal resolution of fTCD, early cerebral hemodynamic modulation of the left MCA markedly predicted task accuracy. Pronounced early blood flow increase during planning and early decrease during movement execution were associated with better performance. No such blood flow modulations were observed in worse performers. CONCLUSIONS: Early cerebral hemodynamic modulation in the left MCA proved to be a valuable neurophysiological marker that showed a great overlap with task accuracy during non-routine planning. SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the notion that a high temporal resolution in functional monitoring is a favorable strategy to disentangle relevant neurophysiological correlates of higher cognitive functioning.