Differential cyp19 aromatase expression during development leads to sexual dimorphisms in the mammalian brain. Whether this is also true for fish is unknown. The aim of the current study has been to follow the expression of the brain-specific aromatase cyp19a2 in the brains of sexually differentiating zebrafish. To assess the role of cyp19a2 in the zebrafish brain during gonadal differentiation, we used quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to detect differences in the transcript or protein levels and/or expression pattern in juvenile fish, histology to monitor the gonadal status, and double immunofluorescence with neuronal or radial glial markers to characterize aromatase-positive cells. Our data show that cyp19a2 expression levels during zebrafish sexual differentiation cannot be assigned to a particular sex; the expression pattern in the brain is similar in both sexes and aromatase-positive cells appear to be mostly of radial glial nature. Developmental Dynamics 236:3155-3166, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.