This paper explores the relative impacts of reduction and polymerization on the evolution of reproductive structures in the small but morphologically diverse family Centrolepidaceae. Centrolepidaceae are closely related to Restionaceae and belong to the large order Poales, which also includes the grasses. In the largest genus of Centrolepidaceae, Centrolepis, the reproductive structures are viewed either as highly unusual aggregations of reduced flowers (the pseudanthial interpretation) or as unique flowers evolved through extreme reduction in the androecium, usually accompanied by a drastic increase in carpel number and elaboration of the entire gynoecium. Comparative data are here presented on gynoecia of all three genera of Centrolepidaceae; these data strongly support the latter (euanthial) interpretation. The combined phenomenon of carpel multiplication and decrease in stamen number is unexpected in a predominantly wind-pollinated lineage. Applying a pseudanthial interpretation would create a considerable morphological gap with reproductive structures of other Poales, whereas accepting a euanthial concept allows an almost continuous morphological series with related taxa.