BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) during follow-up of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission after first-line therapy who received FDG-PET/CT during their follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. Confirmatory biopsy was mandatory in case of recurrence. RESULTS: Overall, 134 patients were analyzed. Forty-two (31.3%) patients had a recurrence. The positive predictive value of FDG-PET/CT was 0.98. Single-factor analysis identified morphological residual mass [P = 0.0005, hazard ratio (HR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-6.6] and symptoms (P < 0.0001, HR 4.9, 95% CI 2.4-9.9) as significant risk factors for relapse. By multivariate analysis, morphological residual mass was the only significant risk factor for early follow-up (<24 months) (P = 0.0019, HR 7.6, 95% CI 2.1-27.3). Advanced stage (P = 0.0426, HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1-12.3) and the presence of symptoms (P = 0.0009, HR = 14.6, 95% CI 3.0-69.7) were found to be significant risk factors for later follow-up (>24 months). CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic patients without morphological residues and an early stage of disease do not need a routine FDG-PET/CT for follow-up. Asymptomatic patients with morphological residues should receive routine follow-up FDG-PET/CT for the first 24 months. Only patients with advanced initial stage do need a routine follow-up FDG-PET/CT beyond 24 months.