For decades, it has been acknowledged that oxidative stress due to free radical species contributes to the pathophysiology of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) not only transform aldehydes to acids but also act as antioxidant enzymes. However, little is known about the implications of the enzymatic family of ALDH in the context of neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). We therefore examined the enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial ALDH-isoform in different regions of the postmortem brain tissue isolated from patients with AD and controls. We found that the mitochondrial ALDH activity was significantly increased only in the putamen of patients suffering from AD compared to controls. This is of particular interest since mediators of oxidative stress, such as iron, are increased in the putamen of patients with AD. This study adds to the body of evidence that suggests that oxidative stress as well as aldehyde toxicity play a role in AD.