The process of embalming leads to various post-mortem artefacts in ancient Egyptian mummies. Its different radiological aspects and its interpretation (historical background and intention) are demonstrated by way of example on two mummies belonging to Swiss collections (Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen der Stadt Winterthur, Winterthur; Musée d'Ethnographie, Neuchâtel). The human remains date from 900 bc and 300 bc, respectively, and have - among other investigations - been subject to conventional X-ray and CT examinations. Organ packages, artificial parts of the body, body packing material and embalming substances have been detected. Exact localization is best performed by CT, while for identification of chemical components, physico-chemical methods are recommended.