The following paper looks at evidence of rank distinction and lineage affiliation among participants in a covenant recorded on tablets excavated at Wenxian 溫縣, Henan province, and dated to the fifth century BC. The covenant is in the form of a loyalty oath to a leader, taken to be the head of the Han 韓 lineage, one of the ministerial families of Jin 晉. The text of the covenant is written in ink on stone tablets, each individualized with the name of a covenantor. Tablets with this particular covenant text were found in five separate pits. The number of tablets in each pit ranged from several dozen to more than 5000. The stone-type and shape of the tablets varied within and among pits. I argue that these variations are evidence of distinctions in rank among the covenantors. I discuss a set of four related names from the tablets that appear to support this conjecture. I then look at names, of both covenantors and enemies, in which a lineage name is found. I argue that these names show that it was loyalty to the Han leader, not shared lineage affiliation, which was the main requirement for participation in the covenanting group. I conclude with a brief discussion on the size of the covenanting group, lineages within political groups, and the wider significance of these materials.