Most developing countries have made efforts to undertake decentralisation. Women and marginalised groups have enhanced their political power, and funds have been allocated to remote communities. A recent NCCR North- South publication, Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity, examines case studies in Latin America and South Asia. It confirms the importance of basic principles for successful decentralisation, such as participation, non-exclu- sion, efficacy, transparency and accountability. At the same time it shows that there is no “global blueprint”, as decentralisation takes place in highly complex and diverse local contexts.