Pelophylax esculentus is a hybridogenetic frog originating from matings between P. ridibundus (RR) and P. lessonae (LL). Typically, diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry with one of their parental species, upon which they depend for successful reproduction. In parts of their range, however, pure hybrid populations can be found. These hybrid populations have achieved reproductive independence from their parental species by using triploid hybrids (LLR, LRR) rather than LL and RR as their sexual hosts. These different breeding systems also entail differences in reproduction (clonal versus sexual) and hence offer the opportunity to study how genetic diversity is affected by reproductive mode, population structure and geographic location. We investigated 33 populations in the Scania region (South Sweden) and 18 additional populations from Northern and Central Europe. Within both genomes (L, R), genetic variability increases with the potential for recombination and declines from the main species distribution area southeast of the Baltic Sea to the fringe populations northwest of the Baltic Sea. Within the main study area in Scania, genetic diversity is low and decreases from a core area to the periphery. Genetic differentiation between Scania populations is small but significant and best explained by 'isolation by distance'. Despite the low genetic variability within the discrete genomes, all-hybrid P. esculentus populations in southern Sweden are apparently not suffering from direct negative fitness effects. This is probably because of its somatic hybrid status, which increases diversity through the combination of genomes from two species.