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Hemophagocytic syndrome caused by primary herpes simplex virus 1 infection: report of a first case


Cusini, A; Günthard, H F; Stussi, G; Schwarz, U; Fehr, T; Grueter, E; Meerbach, A; Bossart, W; Schaer, D J; Rudiger, A (2010). Hemophagocytic syndrome caused by primary herpes simplex virus 1 infection: report of a first case. Infection, 38(5):423-426.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic syndrome represents a severe hyperinflammatory condition by activated macrophages. Leading viral triggering agents are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and adenovirus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis on azathioprine and prednisone medication, who developed a life-threatening hemophagocytic syndrome. Positive plasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with negative serology revealed a primary, disseminated infection with herpes simplex virus-1 as the triggering pathogen. After treatment with acyclovir, high-dose steroids, immunoglobulins, and etoposide, the patient recovered. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of potentially underlying infections of hemophagocytic syndrome influences the therapeutic approach. It is important to consider a variety of infectious agents, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals. The reported case emphasizes the importance of screening for herpes simplex virus 1.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic syndrome represents a severe hyperinflammatory condition by activated macrophages. Leading viral triggering agents are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and adenovirus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis on azathioprine and prednisone medication, who developed a life-threatening hemophagocytic syndrome. Positive plasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with negative serology revealed a primary, disseminated infection with herpes simplex virus-1 as the triggering pathogen. After treatment with acyclovir, high-dose steroids, immunoglobulins, and etoposide, the patient recovered. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of potentially underlying infections of hemophagocytic syndrome influences the therapeutic approach. It is important to consider a variety of infectious agents, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals. The reported case emphasizes the importance of screening for herpes simplex virus 1.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic and Policlinic for Internal Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:17 Aug 2010 13:01
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 22:51
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0300-8126
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-010-0037-9
PubMed ID:20602145

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