The immune system comprises an innate and an adaptive immune response to combat pathogenic agents. The human enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invades the intestinal mucosa and triggers an early innate proinflammatory host gene response, which results in diarrheal disease. Several host factors, including transcription factors and transcription coregulators, are involved in the acute early response to Salmonella infection. We found in a mouse model of enterocolitis induced by S. Typhimurium that the absence of the nuclear protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a previously described cofactor for NF-kappaB-mediated proinflammatory gene expression, is associated with a delayed proinflammatory immune response after Salmonella infection. Our data reveal that PARP1 is expressed in the proliferative zone of cecum crypts, where it is required for the efficient expression of proinflammatory genes, many of which are related to interferon signaling. Consequently, animals lacking PARP1 show impaired infiltration of immune cells into the gut, with severely delayed inflammation.