Trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience or report social stigmatization and isolation. Williams (2001) provided an experimental paradigm
to assess behavioral effects of social exclusion. This paradigm (face-to-face version) has been applied in a 2 2 group experimental condition design. Participants
in the PTSD group (N 16) and the nontraumatized control group (N 25) were randomly assigned to an exclusion or inclusion condition. The results showed interaction effects for main psychopathological assessments (depression, anxiety, psychoticism) and expected main effects for the majority of outcome measures (psychopathology, well-being, belonging, and meaningful existence). The research concludes
that a general assumption of elevated levels of self-perceived social exclusion in PTSD patients has to be considered in terms of differentiated psychopathological effects of exclusion.