Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a fast and robust method to determine the energetics of association reactions in solution. The changes in enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity that accompany binding provide unique insights into the balance of forces driving association of molecular entities. ITC is used nowadays on a day-to-day basis in hundreds of laboratories. The method aids projects both in basic and practice-oriented research ranging from medicine and biochemistry to physical chemistry and material sciences. Not surprisingly, the range of studies utilizing ITC data is steadily expanding. In this review, we discuss selected results and ideas that have accumulated in the course of the year 2006, the focus being on biologically relevant systems. Theoretical developments, novel applications and studies that provide a deeper level of understanding of the energetic principles of biological function are primarily considered. Following the appearance of a new generation of titration calorimeters, recent papers provide instructive examples of the synergy between energetic and structural approaches in biomedical and biotechnological research.