Terebratuloid and cancellothyridoid brachiopods from the South-Helvetic Lutetian (Eocene) of the Fäneren region (NE Switzerland) are described: Carneithyris subregularis (Quenstedt) and two forms of Terebratulina s.l. under open nomenclature. Several species of Alpine and non-Alpine origin, related to Carneithyris subregularis, like Terebratula kickxi Galeotti, Terebratula aequivalvis Schafhäutl and Terebratula hilarionis Davidson show characters, which compare well with Carneithyris subregularis. Two of them, T. aequivalvis and T. hilarionis, are assigned to the genus Carneithyris. The stratigraphy and lithology of the sediments in the study area are reassessed. Life habits and palaeoecology of the brachiopods are discussed. C. subregularis apparently was a free living brachiopod without attachment to the substrate, as indicated by massive accumulations of callosities in the posterior parts of the shell. The variability of the cardinal process, as seen in the studied Carneithyris group can be interpreted as a morphological element to enlarge the surface of attachment of strong diductor muscles in relation to the internal thickening of the individual.