Gangliogliomas usually present as benign tumors corresponding to World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I. Very rarely, gangliogliomas show histological features of malignancy and are then classified as anaplastic gangliogliomas of WHO Grade III or IV. In most cases, anaplastic gangliogliomas developed after radiation therapy or progression from a pre-existing low-grade ganglioglioma. Here, we report the case of a 77-year-old male patient who was operated on a primary ganglioglioma with a highly anaplastic glial component corresponding to a small-cell glioblastoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with a small-cell glioblastoma component.