PURPOSE: The objective of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different minerals in combination with 1% citric acid on dental erosion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety enamel samples were randomly allocated to nine groups (G1: pure 1% citric acid solution [control]; G2: with 1 mM Ca; G3: with 0.047 mM F; G4: with 1 mM Fe; G5: with 1 mM P; G6: with 1 mM Ca and 0.047 mM F; G7: with 1 mM Ca and 1 mM P; G8: with 1 mM Fe and 0.047 mM F; G9: with 1 mM Ca, 1 mM P, 0.047 mM F and 1.0 mM Fe). The samples were subjected to six pH cycles, each consisting of immersion in pure or modified 1% citric acid (1 min) followed by storage in artificial saliva (59 min). Enamel wear was assessed using profilometry. RESULTS: Data were analysed using analysis of variance and Tukey test (P < 0.05). Enamel loss (mean + or - SD) amounted to between 0.87 + or - 0.30 and 1.74 + or - 0.74 microm but did not significantly differ among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of 1% citric acid with different minerals did not have a protective effect on enamel erosion.