The role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae as an agent of pneumonia is suggested by sero-epidemiological studies, molecular surveys and by the permissivity of macrophages, lung fibroblasts and pneumocytes to this obligate intracellular bacteria. We thus developed a murine model of pneumonia due to Parachlamydia. Mice were inoculated intratracheally with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Pneumonia-associated mortality was of 50% 5 days post-inoculation. Lungs histopathology was characterized by purulent and interstitial pneumonia. The presence of Parachlamydia in the lesions was demonstrated by PCR, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Moreover, living Parachlamydia could be recovered from the lungs of infected mice using amoebal co-culture. All control mice inoculated with heat-inactivated bacteria were free of symptoms and survived. Thus, we demonstrated that Parachlamydia induce a severe pneumonia in mice. This animal model, which confirms the third and fourth Koch postulates, may be suitable to test in vivo efficient therapeutic regimens against Parachlamydia.