Abnormal coagulation parameters can be found in 25% of trauma patients with major injuries. Furthermore, trauma patients presenting with coagulopathy on admission have worse clinical outcome. Tissue trauma and systemic hypoperfusion appear to be the primary factors responsible for the development of acute traumatic coagulopathy immediately after injury. As a result of overt activation of the protein C pathway, the acute traumatic coagulopathy is characterised by coagulopathy in conjunction with hyperfibrinolysis. This coagulopathy can then be exacerbated by subsequent physiologic and physical derangements such as consumption of coagulation factors, haemodilution, hypothermia, acidemia and inflammation, all factors being associated with ongoing haemorrhage and inadequate resuscitation or transfusion therapies. Knowledge of the different mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute traumatic coagulopathy is essential for successful management of bleeding trauma patients. Therefore, early evidence suggests that treatment directed at aggressive and targeted haemostatic resuscitation can lead to reductions in mortality of severely injured patients.