The use of guided bone regeneration (GBR) techniques requires new materials meeting the needs of clinical application. Design criteria for GBR devices are biocompatibility, tissue occlusion, space provision, and clinical manageability. This study evaluates a novel biodegradable poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) based material as tissue occlusive membrane. A subcutaneous implant model in rats was developed to test the barrier function of the PEG hydrogels over time. Fourteen rats received three membrane implants and two positive controls each. Explants were collected over a period of 7 months. Histological analysis revealed that for at least 4 months cellular infiltration in the membrane explants was lower than 1% of that of the positive controls. Therefore, the PEG based hydrogel can be regarded as tissue occlusive during this period of time. A barrier function seems to be maintained for up to 6 months. In vitro degradation studies performed with the same PEG constructs confirm the in vivo result. In conclusion, our results indicate that this novel PEG-based material has potential for use as a GBR barrier membrane.