Aim: Postpartum anemia is a common problem in obstetrics. Depending on the severity of anemia, it can cause a wide range of symptoms. Obstetrical management should be focused on avoiding blood transfusion in young and otherwise healthy women. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) combined with iron sucrose compared to iron sucrose alone in patients with severe postpartum anemia. Methods: A prospective randomized study was conducted in women with severe postpartum anemia (Hb < 8.5 g/dL). The first group received 200 mg iron sucrose intravenously daily on days 1-4. The second group received 200 mg iron sucrose plus 10.000E rhEPO in the same regimen. Twenty women were enrolled in each group. The follow-up period was two weeks. Results: Baseline Hb was 7.1 g/dL and 7.5 g/dL, respectively, depending on the subgroup. Hemoglobin values increased close to normal values within two weeks in both groups treated with iron sucrose alone or in combination with rhEPO (10.5 g/dL, 10.7 g/dL, respectively). Conclusion: In general, iron sucrose alone is a sufficient anemia therapy agent. A subgroup of patients (i.e. with a more pronounced inflammatory response after cesarean section) may benefit from additional rhEPO therapy. Despite being severely anemic, none of our patients required transfusion. Iron sucrose as well as rhEPO was very well tolerated. The benefit of the therapy lies in the avoidance of allogenic blood transfusions with their potential side effects. In cases of severe anemia after operative delivery, additional rhEPO therapy can result in a faster Hb increase and, therefore, faster recovery.