We describe a unique presentation of autosomal recessive (AR) GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) deficiency, with severe CNS involvement but without hyperphenylalaninemia. A male infant presented with progressive spasticity, dystonia and oculogyric episodes. Blood phenylalanine levels were persistently normal: whereas an oral phenylalanine loading test revealed impaired phenylalanine clearance. CSF neopterin and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) were low, homovanillic acid marginally low and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid normal. Fibroblasts showed decreased GTPCH enzyme activity. A homozygous novel mutation of GCH1, p.V206A, was identified. On treatment (BH(4), L-Dopa/Carbidopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan), motor development improved. Mutational analysis provided neonatal diagnosis of a younger brother who, after 18 months on treatment, shows normal development. AR GTPCH I deficiency can present without hyperphenylalaninemia and with normal or subtle CSF neurotransmitter profiles. Testing for GTPCH deficiency should be considered for patients with unexplained neurological symptoms and extrapyramidal movement disorder.