The pancreatic B-cell hormone amylin has been proposed to be both a satiation signal and an adiposity signal. The effects of peripheral amylin on energy balance are well investigated, but the effects of central amylin are less clear. We determined the effects of low doses of amylin administered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) on food intake, body weight and other indices of energy balance. Amylin (2 pmol/h) significantly lowered body weight compared to saline after 2 weeks of infusion, independent of whether prior body weight was decreased by fasting, increased by voluntary overfeeding or unmanipulated. A bolus injection of amylin (10 pmol, i3vt) increased energy expenditure and body temperature, whereas chronic i3vt amylin infusion had no effect on energy expenditure above that of control rats even though body temperature was increased. Chronic amylin also reduced RQ, implying a preferential oxidation of fat. Overall, the data provide new evidence that amylin is an adiposity signal that acts within the brain, and informing the brain about the status of peripheral energy stores.