Recommendations were restricted to clinical practice and concern adult patients with or at risk for fractures, falls, cardiovascular or autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The panel reached substantial agreement about the need for vitamin D supplementation in specific groups of patients in these clinical areas and the need for assessing their 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels for optimal clinical care. A target range of at least 30 to 40 ng/mL was recommended. As response to treatment varies by environmental factors and starting levels of 25(OH)D, testing may be warranted after at least 3 months of supplementation. An assay measuring both 25(OH)D(2) and 25(OH)D(3) is recommended. Dark-skinned or veiled individuals not exposed much to the sun, elderly and institutionalized individuals may be supplemented (800 IU/day) without baseline testing.