The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the potential of calcium phosphate cement in the treatment of orbital wall defect fractures in an adult sheep model, and to compare this alloplastic material to autologous calvaria split-bone grafts. Clinical, volumetric and histological examinations were carried out of both reconstruction materials. The use of cement made intraoperative corrections easier to perform, and increased the precision of reconstruction of the orbital volume. This material also proved to be osseoconductive. The two materials were used successfully in combination. Regions of most intensive remodelling were the anterior orbital floor and the adjacent orbital rim. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate the potential of calcium phosphate cement as a useful biomaterial in the reconstruction of the anterior orbital region. Further animal and clinical trials are necessary to investigate its ability as a carrier for mediators where bone healing requires influence or support.