The intensity of sexual selection is influenced by environmental conditions because these conditions influence signal propagation and the risks of the signal being exploited by predators and parasites. We explore the possibility that spatial or temporal heterogeneity in environmental signalling conditions (in this case light spectrum) may induce fluctuating sexual selection on male behaviour and ornamentation in guppies. We used shade cloth and filters to experimentally manipulate light spectrum, mimicking conditions found naturally: early morning/late afternoon light (SC treatment), midday forest shade (F89 filter treatment) and midday woodland shade (F55 filter treatment). Females were more responsive to male courtship and males were less likely to attempt sneak copulations under F55 light than the other two treatments. By contrast, male display rate was not influenced by treatment. Females tended to prefer the same males under SC and F55 light, but attractiveness in these treatments was unrelated to attractiveness under F89 light. There were similarities among treatments in the traits that females preferred: females preferred males with larger areas of orange in all three treatments. There were, however, also some differences, including preference for larger males under F89 light and for smaller males under the other treatments. Overall, the influence of ambient light spectrum on the relative importance of mate choice and male sneak copulation may have important implications for the mode and strength of sexual selection in different environments. The findings on attractiveness and preference functions, however, suggest that light spectrum only weakly affects the direction of sexual selection by female choice.