We compute the next-to-next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the gluon-fusion production of a Higgs boson in models with massive color-octet scalars in the (8,1)0 representation using an effective-theory approach. We derive a compact analytic expression for the relevant Wilson coefficient, and explain an interesting technical aspect of the calculation that requires inclusion of the quartic-scalar interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order. We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the scalar couplings to derive the allowed regions of parameter space, and present phenomenological results for both the Tevatron and the LHC. The modifications of the Higgs production cross section are large at both colliders, and can increase the standard model rate by more than a factor of 2 in allowed regions of parameter space. We estimate that stringent constraints on the color-octet scalar parameters can be obtained using the Tevatron exclusion limit on Higgs production.
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