Amino-bisphosphonates (alendronate, pamidronate) were covalently linked in a three step synthesis, with protected and triazolylated derivatives of therapeutically used nucleoside analogs (5-FdU, araC, AZT) by substitution of their triazolyl residue. From the deprotected and chromatographically purified reaction mixtures N(4)-[alkyl-(hydroxyphosphono) phosphonate]-cytidine combining two differently cytotoxic functions were obtained. This new family of bisphosphonates (BPs) contains as novelty an alkyl side chain with a cytotoxic nucleoside. The BPs moiety allows for a high binding to hydroxyapatite which is a prerequisite for bone targeting of the drugs. In vitro binding of 5-FdU-alendronate (5-FdU-ale) to hydroxyapatite showed a sixfold increased binding of these BPs as compared to 5-FdU. Exploratory cytotoxic properties of 5-FdU-ale were tested on a panel of human tumor cell lines resulting in growth inhibition ranging between 5% and 38%. The determination of IC(50)-concentrations of the conjugate in Lewis lung carcinoma and murine macrophages showed an incubation time dependent growth inhibition with higher sensitivity towards the tumor cells. We assume that the antimetabolite-BPs can be cleaved into different active metabolites that may exert cytotoxic and other therapeutic effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of these promising new antimetabolite-BPs conjugates remain to be evaluated in future experiments.