Canine and human atopic dermatitis are multifaceted diseases whose clinical development may be influenced by several factors, such as genetic background, environment, secondary infections, food and psychological effects. The role of the environment has been extensively examined in humans but remains unclear in dogs. The aim of this study was to examine environmental factors in two genetically close breeds, Labrador and golden retrievers. Using standard criteria, atopic dogs in Switzerland and Germany were selected and compared with healthy individuals. Information on environmental factors was collected using a 46-question survey encompassing date and place of birth, way of life at the breeder's and owner's home, food and treatments. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the association between potential risk factors and disease status. The following parameters were associated with an increased risk of disease development: living in a shed during puppyhood, adoption at the age of 8-12 weeks and washing the dog regularly. In contrast, the following factors were associated with a lower risk: living in a rural environment, living in a household with other animals and walking in a forest. These associations do not prove causality but support the primary hypothesis that certain environmental factors may influence the development of canine atopic dermatitis. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results and conclusions.