The aim of the current study was to investigate the exposure of captive wild felids to various infectious pathogens using serological and molecular methods. One hundred and fifty-nine neotropic felids and 51 exotic felids from 28 captive settings in Brazil were tested. While antibodies against Feline parvovirus and Feline coronavirus (FCoV), Feline calicivirus and Bartonella spp. were frequently detected by serologic tests, antibodies against Felid herpesvirus 1 or infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas were less prevalent. Serologic evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia spp., Feline immunodeficiency virus, and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was detected rarely, and infections with FeLV, Ehrlichia spp., and Cytauxzoon spp. were found infrequently. The detected Bartonella sequence was molecularly similar to B. koehlerae and B. henselae; for Cytauxzoon, the sequence resembled those from domestic cats. No Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. infections were detected. The positive test results varied significantly among different facilities and species. Additionally, FCoV seropositivity was more prevalent in captivity than in free-ranging populations. Results suggest that testing is appropriate prior to relocation of felids.