This study assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and behavior problems in young children with burns and examined individual, injury-related, and family-related determinants. Seventy-six children, aged 12-49 months, were assessed at an average of 15 months after their burn injury, using parents as informants on the posttraumatic stress disorder semi-structured interview and observational record for infants and young children and the child behavior checklist. Ten children (13.2%) met the alternative criteria for PTSD proposed by Scheeringa et al. Number of PTSD symptoms were associated with family-related variables (maternal PTSD, quality of family relations). Compared to community norms, children with burns showed less externalizing behavior problems, and internalizing behavior problems were within the normal range. Overall, behavioral adjustment was associated with the quality of family relations (cohesion, expressiveness, conflicts). Whereas behavior was found to be normal in young children with burns, this study provides evidence for a substantial prevalence of PTSD.