The immune response to Helicobacter pylori entails both innate effectors and a complex mix of Th1, Th17, and Treg adaptive immune responses. The clinical outcome of infection may well depend to a large degree on the relative balance of these responses. Vaccination with a wide range of antigens, adjuvants, and delivery routes can produce statistically significant reductions in H. pylori colonization levels in mice, though rarely sterilizing immunity. Whether similar reductions in bacterial load can be achieved in humans, and whether they would be clinically significant, is still unclear. However, progress in understanding the role of Th1, Th17, and most recently Treg cells in protection against H. pylori infection provides reason for optimism.