Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in humans, has been found in 4.8% of 561 red foxes originating from various regions of Romania. Infected foxes were identified in 8 of 15 counties with average prevalence rates between 1.7% and 14.6%. In previous studies, E. multilocularis was not found in 535 foxes from three counties, but larval stages (metacestodes) were present in four species of rodents. Furthermore, AE was diagnosed in two patients. Experiences from other European regions indicate that several factors (such as increasing fox populations with higher parasite prevalences and urban cycles of the parasite) may result in an increased infection risk for humans.