Nucleotide polymorphism associated with the O-antigen-encoding locus, rfb, in Enterobacter sakazakii was determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Based on the analysis of these DNA profiles, 12 unique banding patterns were detected among a collection of 62 strains from diverse origins. Two common profiles were identified and were designated serotypes O:1 and O:2. DNA sequencing of the 12,500-bp region flanked by galF and gnd identified 11 open reading frames, all with the same transcriptional direction. Analysis of the proximal region of both sequences demonstrated remarkable heterogeneity. A PCR assay targeting genes specific for the two prominent serotypes was developed and applied for the identification of these strains recovered from food, environmental, and clinical samples.