Doxycycline is an antibiotic used in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory conditions, including periodontitis. Apart from its antimicrobial properties, this drug also has independent anti-inflammatory effects at sub-antimicrobial doses. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of low-doses of doxycycline (LDD) on cytokine production by human monocytic cells challenged with the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, for up to 6h. The simultaneous regulation of 12 cytokines were measured by a Human Cytokine Array Kit. To validate the array findings, selected cytokines were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 by the cells after 6h of challenge, and doxycycline significantly inhibited this effect. The kinetics of this regulation demonstrated an early (within 2h) and significant (P<0.05) inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a mild (0.5-fold) up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The results indicate that LDD acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in human monocytic cells stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans. This model provides clear evidence that some of the clinically proven benefits of LDD may be related to its ability to regulate inflammatory mediator release by monocytic cells. This property may contribute to the clinically proven benefits of this antibiotic as an adjunctive treatment for periodontitis.