Regulation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand)-induced osteoclast differentiation is of current interest in the development of antiresorptive agents. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) on the regulation of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. NMP inhibited RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells. The RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1) and c-Fos, which are key transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, was also reduced by treatment with NMP. Furthermore, NMP induced disruption of the actin rings and decreased the mRNAs of cathepsin K and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), both involved in bone resorption. Taken together, these results suggest that NMP inhibits osteoclast differentiation and attenuates bone resorption. Therefore, NMP could prove useful for the treatment of osteoporosis or other bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.