Adenoviruses are important infectious agents and also emerging vectors in different biomedical applications. These viruses elicit a strong innate and adaptive immune response, which influences both the course of disease and the success of the applied vectors. Several Toll-like Receptor (TLR)-dependent and -independent mechanisms contribute to these responses. Understanding of the involved viral and cellular factors is crucial for the treatment of various adenovirus diseases and the optimal design of adenovirus vector applications. Here we summarize our current understanding of the complex nature of adenovirus-induced innate immune mechanisms.